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1.    Normal Gross Anatomy
1.1. the heart in situ
1.2. pericardium
1.3. external examination
1.4. right atrium
1.5. tricuspid valve
1.6. right ventricle
1.7. pulmonic valve
1.8. pulmonary artery
1.9. left atrium
1.10. mitral valve
1.11. left ventricle
1.12. aortic valve
1.13. endocardium
1.14. coronary arteries and veins
1.15. aorta
2.    Normal Light Microscopic Anatomy
2.1. atrial myocardium
2.2. ventricular myocardium
2.3. conduction system
2.3.1. sinoatrial node
2.3.2. atrioventricular node
2.3.3. bundle of His
2.4. atrioventricular valves
2.5. semilunar valves
2.6. endocardium
2.7. epicardium
2.8. coronary vasculature
2.9. nervous tissue
2.10. connective tissue
2.10.1. fibroblasts
2.10.2. collagens
2.10.3. elastic lamellae
3.     Normal Ultrastructure
3.1. cardiac myocytes
3.1.1. nucleus
3.1.2. nucleolus
3.1.3. nuclear membranes
3.1.4. nuclear pores
3.1.5. annulate lamellae
3.1.6. myofibrils
3.1.6.1. sarcomeres
3.1.6.1.1. A band
3.1.6.1.2. I band
3.1.6.1.3. M band
3.1.6.1.4. H band
3.1.6.1.5. N band
3.1.6.1.6. Z band
3.1.7.  cytoskeleton
3.1.7.1. intermediate filaments
3.1.7.2. microtubules
3.1.7.3. centrioles
3.1.8. sarcolemma and T-tubules
3.1.9. intercellular junctions and basal laminae
3.1.10. sarcoplasmic reticulum
3.1.11. Golgi apparatus
3.1.12. mitochondria
3.1.14. lysosomes and residual bodies
3.1.15. peroxisomes
3.1.16. glycogen  particles,
3.1.17. vesicles and multivesicular bodies
3.2. atrial myocytes
3.2.1. sarcoplasmic reticulum
3.2.2. T-tubules
3.2.3. atrial granules
3.3. conduction system
3.3.1. sinoatrial node
3.3.2. atrioventricular node
3.3.3. bundle of His
3.3.4. peripheral branches of the bundle of His
3.4. myocardial interstitium
3.4.1. non-cellular elements
3.4.1.1. collagens
3.4.1.2. elastic fibers
3.4.1.3. microfibrils
3.4.1.4. proteoglycans
3.4.1.5. organization of the myocardial interstitium (strut system)
3.4.2. cellular elements
3.4.3.1. fibroblasts
3.4.3.2. myofibroblasts
3.4.3.3. smooth muscle cells
3.4.3.4. primitive mesenchymal cells
3.4.3.5. Anitschkow cells
3.4.3.6. histiocytes / Macrophages
3.4.3.7. mast Cells
3.5. Endocardium
3.5.1. ventricular endocardium
3.5.2. atrial endocardium
3.5.3. valvular endocardium
3.6. Valves
3.6.1. atrioventricular valves and chordae tendineae
3.6.2. semilunar valves
3.7. Pericardium
3.7.1. visceral pericardium
3.7.2. parietal pericardium 
3.8. Vessels
3.8.1. non-cellular elements
3.8.1.1. collagens
3.8.1.2. microfibrils
3.8.1.3. elastin
3.8.2. cellular elements
3.8.2.1. endothelial cells
3.8.2.2. vascular smooth muscle cells
3.8.2.3. pericytes and veil cells
3.8.3. elastic type arteries
3.8.4. muscular type arteries
3.8.5. arterioles
3.8.6. small intramural coronary arteries
3.8.7. capillaries
3.8.8. venules
3.8.9. veins
3.8.10. lymphatics
3.9. Myocardial Innervation
3.9.1. autonomic nerves
3.9.2. sensory nerves
3.9.3. baroreceptors
3.9.4. carotid receptors
3.9.5. cardiac ganglia
3.9.6. neuroendocrine (chromaffin) cells
4. Ischemic Heart Disease
4.1. acute myocardial infarction, gross and microscopic 
4.1.1. gross pathology of acute myocardial infarct
4.1.2. tetrazolium stain
4.1.3. light microscopy 
4.1.3.1. coagulation necrosis
4.1.3.2. contraction band necrosis
4.1.3.3. colliquative myocytolysis
4.1.3.4. reperfusion injury
4.1.4. dating a myocardial infarct by light microscopic exam
4.1.4.1. 6 hours
4.1.4.2. 8 hours
4.1.4.3. 12 hours
4.1.4.4. 24 hours.
4.1.4.5. 48 hours
4.1.4.6. 72 hours
4.1.4.7. 7 days
4.1.4.8. 14 days
4.1.4.9. 21 days
4.1.4.10.3 months
4.1.5. ultrastructural changes due to ischemia
4.1.5.1. floculent densities
4.1.5.2. coagulation necrosis
4.1.5.2. contraction band necrosis
4.1.5.3. colliquative myocytolysis
4.1.5.4. vascular injury
4.2. healed myocardial infarction
4.2.1. subendocardial
4.2.2. transmural
4.3. small vessel disease
4.4. interstitial fibrosis (chronic ischemic heart disease)
4.5. sequelae of myocardial infarcts
4.5.1. ventricular aneurysms
4.5.2. ventricular rupture
4.5.3. papillary muscle rupture
4.5.4. valvular dysfunction
4.5.5. thrombosis
4.6. coronary artery pathology (atherosclerosis, vasculitis, dissection, anomalous origin, ostial stenosis, dysplasia)
4.7. bypass CABG pathology  (arterial vs. vein graft, acute occlusion, chronic occlusion, fibrosis, calcification)
4.8. intracoronary stents
5. Valvular Heart Disease 
5.1. Semilunar Valves
5.1.2. congenital valve disease
5.1.2.1. Dysplasia
5.1.2.2. Hypoplasia
5.1.2.3. Atresia
5.1.3.  acquired valve disease
5.1.3.1. inflammatory (endocarditis (bacterial, fungal), rheumatic, autoimmune, perforation, marantic)
5.1.3.2. degenerative (myxomatous, chordae lengthening, thickening, calcification,  atheroma) ring dilatation (aortic, mitral)
5.1.3.3. infiltrative (mucopolysaccharidosis)
5.1.3.4. iatrogenic (radiation, marantic)
5.2. Atrioventricular  Valves
5.2.2. congenital valve disease
5.2.2.1. Dysplasia
5.2.2.2. Hypoplasia
5.2.2.3. Atresia
5.2.3.  acquired valve disease
5.2.3.1. inflammatory (endocarditis (bacterial, fungal), rheumatic, autoimmune, perforation, marantic)
5.2.3.2. degenerative (myxomatous, chordae lengthening, thickening, calcification,  atheroma) ring dilatation (aortic, mitral)
5.2.3.3. infiltrative (mucopolysaccharidosis)
5.2.3.4. iatrogenic (radiation, marantic)
5.3. prosthetic valves
5.3.1. Mechanical Valves
5.3.2. Bioprosthetic Valves 
6. Inflammatory Heart Disease
6.1. myocarditis
6.1.1. idiopathic
6.1.2. viral
6.1.3. fungal
6.1.4. parasitic
6.1.4.1. Chagas' disesase
6.1.4.2. toxoplamosis
6.1.4.3. sarcocystis
6.1.4.4. malaria
6.1.4.5. pneumocystis carinii
6.1.5. granulomatous
6.1.5.1. rheumatic fever
6.1.5.2. rheumatoid arthritis 
6.1.5.3. ankylosing spondilitis
6.1.5.4. Wegener’s granulomatosis 
6.1.5.5. giant cell myocarditis 
6.1.5.6. sarcoidosis
6.1.5.7. toxic
6.1.5.8. drug-induced (hypersensitivity)
6.1.5.8.1. hyperosinophilic
6.1.5.8.2. ephedra
6.1.5.8.3. cyclosporin
6.1.5.8.4. adriamycin
6.1.5.8.5. herceptin
6.1.5.8.6. cytokines (LAK,  IL-2, Interferon)
6.2. infective endocarditis
6.3. autoimmune diseases
6.4. tropical and parasitic diseases
6.5. unknown origin
7. Cardiomyopathies
7.1. dilated
7.2. hypertrophic
7.3. infiltrative / restrictive
7.4. right ventricular dysplasia
7.5. specific cardiomyopathies
7.5.1. mitochondrial
7.5.2. hemochromatosis
7.5.3. amyloidosis
7.5.4. sarcoidosis
7.5.5. storage diseases
7.5.6. left ventricular non-compaction
8. Familial and metabolic diseases
8.1. diseases of carbohydrate metabolism
8.1.2. glycogen storage diseases
8.1.2.1. Type II
8.1.2.2. Type III
8.1.2.3. Type IV 
8.1.2.4. PRKAG2
8.1.2.5. Lamp2
8.1.3. other diseases of carbohydrate metabolism
8.1.3.1. McArdle's disease
8.1.3.2. phosphofructokinase deficiency
8.1.3.3. phosphorylase B Kinase deficiency
8.1.3.4. Lafora's disease
8.1.4. basophilic degeneraton of the myocardium
8.2. mucopolysaccharidoses
8.2.1. Hurler's disease
8.2.3. Hunter's disease
8.3. diseases of protein and amino acid metabolism
8.3.1. ochronosis
8.3.2. homocystinuria
8.3.3. amyloidosis
8.3.4. light chain disease
8.3.5. nemaline myopathy
8.3.6. desmin storage
8.4. diseases of  connective tissue
8.4.1. Marfan syndrome
8.4.2. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
8.4.3. osteogenesis imperfecta
8.4.4. cutis laxa
8.4.5. pseudoxantoma elasticum
8.5. diseases of lipid metabolism
8.5.1. hyperlipoproteinemias
8.5.1.1. Type 1
8.5.1.2. Type 2
8.5.1.3. Type 3
8.5.2. acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase deficiency (move to valve)
8.5.3. glycolipid disease (Fabry's disease)
8.5.4. carnitine deficiency
8.6. diseases of iron and copper metabolism
8.6.1.  hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis
8.6.2. Wilson's disease
8.7. diseases of calcium metabolism
8.7.1. dystrophic calcification in myocardium
8.8. deficiencies of nutrients 
8.8.1. iron deficiency
8.8.2. copper deficiency
8.8.3. selenium and Vitamin E deficiency (Keshan's disease)
8.8.4. potassium deficiency
8.8.5. magnesium deficiency
8.8.6. deficiency of thiamine and other vitamins
8.8.7. choline deficiency
8.9. neuromuscular disorders
8.9.1. Muscular dystrophies
8.9.1.1. Duchenne type
8.9.1.2. Myotonic dystrophy
8.9.1.3. Friedreich's ataxia
8.9.1.4. Kugelberg-Wellander syndrome
8.9.1.5. Kearns-Sayre syndrome
9. Endomyocardial Biopsy
9.1. technical aspects
9.1.1. in the catheterization laboratory
9.1.2. in the pathology laboratory
9.2. normal histology of the right ventricular endomyocardium
9.3. artifacts
10. Cardiac transplantation
10.1. cellular rejection
10.2. antibody mediated (humoral) rejection
10.3. cardiac allograft vasculopathy
11. Cardiac manifestations of systemic diseases
11.1. genetic (see chapters 7 and  8)
11.2. acquired
11.2.1. hypertension
11.2.2. endocrine diseases
11.2.3. autoimmune (rheumatologic, collagen vascular diseases)
11.2.4. nutritional diseases
12. Physical and chemical agents
12.1. drugs – drug induced cardiac diseases
12.1.1. Anthracyclines
12.1.1. Chloroquine
12.1.1. Cyclophosphamide
12.1.1. Furazolidone
12.1.1. Erucic acid, rapeseed oil, brominated vegetable oils
12.2. radiation
12.3. traumatic
12.4. iatrogenic
12.4.1. defibrillator injury
12.4.2. laser injury
12.4.3. radiofrequency ablation
12.4.5. ethanol ablation
13. Pathology of interventional cardiac procedures.
13.1. open surgical procedures (ischemia, reperfusion, surgical trauma)
13.2. specific procedures
13.2.1. ventricular assist devices
13.s.2. total artificial hearts
13.2.3. defibrilators and pacers
13.2.4. transmyocardial laser revascularization
13.2.5. catheter based ablation
13.2.6. by-pass grafts
13.2.6.1. coronary
13.2.6.2. non-croronary
13.3.percutaneous procedures
13.3.1. angioplasty
13.3.2. stents
13.3.2.1. medium size arteries
13.3.2.2. great vessels
14.Tumors of the Heart
14.1. primary 
14.1.1. benign 
14.1.1.1. myxoma 
14.1.1.2. papillary fibroelastoma
14.1.1.3. fibroma 
14.1.1.4. hemangioma 
14.1.1.5. blood cysts 
14.1.1.6. rhabdomyoma
14.1.1.7. leiomyoma
14.1.1.8. inflammatory pseudotumor
14.1.1.9. cystic tumor of the atrioventricular node
14.1.1.10. lipoma
14.1.1.11. teratoma
14.1.2. malignant
14.1.2.1. angiosarcoma
14.1.2.2. leiomyosarcoma
14.1.2.3. malignant fibrous histiocytoma
14.1.2.4. rhabdomyosarcoma
14.1.2.5. mesothelioma
14.1.2.6. intimal sarcoma
14.2. metastatic
14.2.1. lymphoma
14.2.2. leukemia
14.2.3. melanoma
14.2.4. carcinomas 
14.2.5. sarcomas
14.2.6. mesothelioma
15.Diseases of the pericardium
15.1. inflammatory
15.1.1. infectious
15.1.2. autoimmune
15.2. neoplastic
15.2.1. MICE
15.2.3. mesothelioma
15.3. iatrogenic
15.3.1. radiation
15.3.2. postsurgical
16.Diseases of the great vessels
16.1. congenital
16.1.1. malformation
16.1.2. dysplasia
16.2. acquired
16.2.1. inflammatory (aortitis Takayasu’s, giant cell, bacterial, fungal)
16.2.2. degenerative (atherosclerosis)
16.2.3. iatrogenic
16.2.4. traumatic
16.3. aortic aneurysm 
16.4. aortic dissection
16.5. pulmonary hypertension (arterial and venous)
16.6. thrombosis (arterial and venous, large vessels, small vessels)
16.7. embolism (blood, fat, bone marrow, air, cholesterol, amniotic fluid, paradoxical)
17.Diseases of medium and small vessels
17.1. anomalous coronary arteries
17.2. small vessel vasculitis – non granulomatous
17.3. medium vessel vasculitis
17.3.1. granulomatous
17.3.1.1. Wegener's
17.3.1.1. lymphomatoid granulomatosis
17.3.1.1. allergic angiitis and granulomatosis
17.3.2. non-granulomatous angiitis
 
18.Forensic aspects of cardiac pathology (pathology of sudden death)
18.1. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
18.2. arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
18.3. molecular aspects of arrhythmia 
19.Congenital heart disease
19.1. atrial septal defect
19.2. ventricular septal defect
19.3. coarctation of the aorta
19.4. patent ductus arteriosus
19.5. atrioventricular canal defect
19.6. tetralogy and pentalogy of Fallot
19.7.hypoplastic left heart syndrome
19.7.1. aortic atresia
19.7.2. mitral atresia
19.8. tricuspid atresia
19.9. pulmonic atresia
20.Technical aspects of the examination of cardiovascular specimens  
20.1. examination of the heart
20.1.1. examination and procurement of the sinoatrial node
20.1.2. examination of the atrioventricular node
20.1.3. examination of the aortic and carotid baroreceptors
20.1.4. processing of endomyocardial biopsy specimens
20.1.5. processing of explanted hearts
21.1.6. processing of heart valves
21.1.7. processing of vascular specimens
21.1.8. processing of devices
21.1.8.1. prosthetic valves
21.1.8.2. left ventricular assist devices
21.1.8.3. endovascular stents
21.1.8.4. conduits
20.2. special techniques
20.2.1. tetrazolium-nitroblue staining
20.2.2. radiographic images
20.2.3. perfusion fixation
20.2.4. injection
20.2.5. plastination
20.2.6. photography of cardiovascular specimens

 

 

 

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